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2.1.1 General rules for citation

The guiding principle of the rules that follow is that, when a source is referred to, the reference provided should enable the reader to locate the source. For example, the reader should be able to find where a case was reported.

The rules in this guide address the citation of sources when footnotes are used. When endnotes or inline referencing systems are used, make such modifications to the rules that follow as may be necessary in the circumstances.

Accuracy and completeness, both in the main text and footnotes, are essential.

When a source is cited for the first time, full reference information is included. When a source is cited for a second or subsequent time, use the relevant cross-referencing style from rule 2.3.

Where a bibliography is required, it should include all the sources used in the production of the piece, whether they are cited in the piece or not.

2.1.2 The location of citation information

Do not include the full citation of an authority in the main text.

Use only the name of the case or title of the work in the main text and then give the full citation in the footnote.

The first time a case is cited give the full citation in the footnote. Even if the name of the case is referred to in the main text, include it in the footnote. Give subsequent references in accordance with rule 2.3.1.

Eg In the main text:

In R v Wangthe Court of Appeal held that there are two limbs to s 48 of the Crimes Act 1961, one involving a subjective view of the circumstances as the accused believed them to be and the other an objective view as to the reasonableness of the force used in self-defence or defence of another in those circumstances.1 The Court said that force includes not only the use of physical power but also a threat to use physical power.2

In the footnotes:

1 R v Wang [1990] 2 NZLR 529 (CA) at 534.

2 At 535.

2.1.3 Punctuation only when grammatically necessary

Only use punctuation when grammatically necessary, and not to indicate abbreviation. For example, abbreviate the Auckland District Law Society to “ADLS”, not “A.D.L.S.”

When punctuation is removed from acronyms, initialisms or abbreviated names (the names of journals, for example), it may be necessary to leave a space where the full stop was. Generally a space will follow words that have been abbreviated to more than a single letter.

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