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Appendix 7: Additional style rules for university work

This is designed as a beginning point from which individual institutions may require students to depart. We have left a blank page after this appendix for students to write in additional local requirements. It may especially need alteration for students writing legal opinions as opposed to research essays, as it is particularly designed to deal with research papers, dissertations and theses.

This guide is not intended to be a guide to correct grammar. Many excellent grammar texts exist, such as RW Burchfield Fowler’s Modern English Usage (3rd ed, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004). Of particular note are the rules pertaining to the use of apostrophes, specifically plural and group possessives. Recourse should be made to a grammar text to remedy any uncertainty.

I Template available

The online version of this guide, on the Law Foundation’s website available at <www.lawfoundation.org.nz>, contains a hyperlink to a Microsoft Word template that is set up to assist users to follow these instructions. Instructions for using this template are available on this link.

II Font

Times New Roman font (or its equivalent) should be used.

The following font sizes should be used:

Spacing between lines should be 1.25.

III Margins and Justification

All text should be justified, unless doing so would distort the text.

The default margins on most word processors will be acceptable, but wider margins may be required for a specific piece of work.

IV Headings

I Major Headings

Major headings are indicated by roman numerals, are italicised, and should be in 14 point font. The first letter of each word, other than prepositions and articles, should be in capitals.

A Minor Headings within Major Headings

Minor headings are indicated by an upper case letter, are italicised, and should be in 12 point font. The first letter of each word, other than prepositions and articles, should be in capitals.

1 Sub-headings within minor headings

Sub-headings are indicated by arabic numerals and are italicised. Only the initial letter of the first word should be in capitals. Font should be in 12 point.

(a) Paragraph headings

Paragraph headings are indented and indicated by a lower case letter in round brackets. Only the initial letter of the first word should be in capitals. Font should be in 12 point.

(i) Sub-paragraph headings

The same as paragraph headings, but using small roman numerals.

The use of headings is largely a discretionary matter, though paragraph and sub-paragraph headings should be used sparingly.

Where a case name, or other phrase that is required to be italicised, is included in a heading that is also required to be italicised, that phrase is not italicised.

V Bibliography and Tables of Cases and Statutes

Many papers require a bibliography to be included with written work.

Bibliographies perform a different function to footnotes. Footnotes are used to demonstrate authority for a particular statement or to acknowledge the source of a particular idea; a bibliography notes all the sources used in the preparation of a piece, whether they are cited in the footnotes or not. Pinpoint references may be given in footnotes but are not included in a bibliography.

Sources listed in a bibliography should be grouped according to type. While the categorisation used will be different depending on the subject area of the piece, generally primary materials should be listed first (for example, cases and legislation), followed by secondary materials (for example, books and chapters in books, journal articles and reports). By way of example, the sections in a bibliography might be ordered as follows:

When listing sources, the normal style rules should be followed.

Cases should be divided by jurisdiction. New Zealand cases should be listed first, followed by cases from other jurisdictions alphabetically ordered. Within each jurisdiction the names of cases should be listed alphabetically.

Legislation should be listed in the same way as cases with New Zealand legislation listed first, followed by legislation from other jurisdictions alphabetically ordered. Within each jurisdiction, legislation should be ordered as follows: statutes; subordinate legislation; bills. Within each category, list the legislation alphabetically. Do not include country identifiers. For federal systems, it is generally not necessary to list each jurisdiction separately; it is enough to include jurisdiction identifiers.

Other sources should be listed alphabetically by the last name of the author. In multi-author works, all author names should be given but the work should be listed in accordance with the last name of the first-named author.

By way of illustration, the following is a short sample bibliography.

A          Cases

1          New Zealand

Bank of New Zealand v Board of Management of the Bank of New Zealand Officers’ Provident Association [2003] UKPC 58, [2004] 1 NZLR 577.

Craddock v Crowhen HC Christchurch M425/92, 10 February 1995.

Foreman v Kingstone [2004] 1 NZLR 841 (HC).

2          Australia

Hartigan Nominees Pty Ltd v Rydge (1992) 29 NSWLR 405 (CA).

3          England and Wales

Cowan v Scargill [1985] Ch 270 (Ch).

Westdeutsche Landesbank Girozentrale v Islington London Borough Council [1996] 1 AC 669 (HL).

4          Scotland

Dundee General Hospitals Board of Management v Walker [1952] 1 All ER 896 (HL).

B          Legislation

1          New Zealand

Crimes Act 1961.

Summary Offences Act 1975.

Criminal Justice Regulations 1985.

Proceeds of Crime Regulations 1992.

Sentencing (Aggravating Factors) Amendment Bill 2010 (221-1).

2          Australia

Crimes Act 1990 (NSW).

Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth).

Juries Act 1967 (ACT).

Summary Offences Act 1988 (NSW).

Juries Regulations 2011 (Vic)

3          Scotland

Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2003.

Domestic Abuse (Scotland) Act 2011.

4          United Kingdom

Crime and Security Act 2010.

Serious Crime Act 2007.

C          Books and Chapters in Books

John Burrows, Jeremy Finn and Stephen Todd Law of Contract in New Zealand (4th ed, LexisNexis, Wellington, 2012).

Andrew Butler and Petra Butler The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act: A Commentary (LexisNexis, Wellington, 2005).

Robert Chambers “Current Sources of Law: A Commentary” in Rick Bigwood (ed) Legal Method in New Zealand (Butterworths, Wellington, 2001).

David McGee Parliamentary Practice in New Zealand (3rd ed, Dunmore Publishing, Wellington, 2005).

D          Journal Articles

John C Reitz “Political Economy as a Major Architectural Principle of Public Law” (2001) 75 Tul L Rev 1121.

Kenneth Roberts-Wray “Human Rights in the Commonwealth” (1968) 17 ICLQ 908.

Lawrence Rosenthal “A Theory of Governmental Damages Liability: Torts, Constitutional Torts, and Takings” (2007) U Pa J Const L 797.

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