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3.2.9 Judge identifier

(a) Not required

The name of the judge who decided the case is not part of the case citation.

However, where reference to the judge or judges is deemed appropriate, it may be included after the court identifier and after the pinpoint reference, preceded by “per”.

Eg Mafart v Television New Zealand Ltd [2006] NZSC 33, [2006] 3 NZLR 18 at [48] per Tipping J.

Eg Brown v Attorney-General [2005] 2 NZLR 405 (CA) at [81] per Anderson P, Hammond, Chambers and O’Regan JJ.

(b) Judges’ names

New Zealand superior court judges are referred to by their last name only, unless there are two current judges with the same name in which case include their first name. The Courts of New Zealand website, located at <www.courtsofnz.govt.nz>, can be used to ascertain whether a judge’s first name is used.

For more information, see rule 1.1.6(d).

(c) Abbreviations

The following abbreviations of judicial office must appear after the judge’s name. However, those titles marked with an asterisk always appear in full before the judge’s name.

Chief Justice
Associate Judge
Associate Judge*
President of the Court of Appeal
(District Court) Judge

For more information on referring to judges, see rule 1.1.6(d).

(d) Dissents

If the reference is to a dissenting judgment, add “dissenting” after the judge’s name.

Eg Taunoa v Attorney-General [2007] NZSC 70, [2008] 1 NZLR 429 at [6] per Elias CJ dissenting.

(e) Subsequent elevation

When identifying a judge, use his or her judicial office at the time of the decision. Do not use the phrase “as he was then” or “as she was then”.

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